Pre-Treatment technologies

This part investigated densification options for both woody as well as grassy energy crops. The focus was on briquetting and pelletizing  rather than the conventional baling technologies, which are already available, since briquetting as well as pelletizing are expected to result in denser materials more suitable for industrial use.

In addition, two pre-treatment technologies (torrefaction and Torwash) were developed and tested on specific crops, both in combination with briquetting as densification step rather than pelletization.

Therefore, the objectives of this task were to:

  • optimize conventional technologies: briquetting for mechanical pre-treatment of energy crops SRC, Miscanthus and giant reed in order to improve storage and transport.
  • develop new torrefaction technology for thermochemical pre-treatment of energy crops SRC to improve the briquetting process and as such storage and transport.
  • develop new Torwash technology for hydrothermal pre-treatment of energy crops Miscanthus and giant reed to improve the briquetting process and as such storage and transport.
  • characterize of the quality of the densified biomass as well as that of process residues.


  1. Assessment of improved densification technologies
  2. Quality characteristics of commoditized energy crops
  3. Improved densification recipes for raw energy crops
  4. Assessment of improved pre-treatment technologies
  5. Improved densification recipes for thermally pre-treated energy crops
  6. Assessment of existing logistics, handling and storage steps for solid carriers derived from energy crops with the densification/pre-treatment options